Over eighteen characters (deities, gods, spirits, groups of characters, etc.) common to both the Book of Revelation and major Egyptian religious texts are identified. Identification of similar Egyptian characters are based on characteristics found in the Book of Revelation -- not on characteristics of characters found in other Christian sources such as the Old and the remainder of New Testament.

The main criteria use in character dentifications are as follows:

1. Similar names and/or characteristics.
2.  Accompanying text.
3. Crowns, diadems, head-dresses and different animal heads in Egyptian texts.
4. Context of similar actions and or similar sequences of actions in similar scenes.
5. Sequences of similar scenes within larger sequences of similar scenes

Partial list of parallel characters:


God on the throne (Rev: 1 & elsewhere) = Osiris (god of the dead) on the throne
Lamb = Re (the sun-god) in his juvenile ram-headed form
God and the Lamb = the joint god, Osiris-Re at dawn
Word of God = Horus (son of Osiris) and/or Thoth (god of truth; Word of Re)
First beast = Seth (Hyksos form of the Egyptian god, Seth)
Second beast = a Hyksos king of Egypt
False prophet = a Hyksos king of Egypt
Devil, Satan, the ancient dragon = Apophis, the ancient dragon
Amen = Amun
Lion of Judah = Pharaoh, king of Egypt
Woman clothed in the sun (Rev. 12) = Nut, the sky-goddess
Angel holding the little scroll (Rev. 10) = Sokaris
Author of the little scroll = Aker, writer of the Book of Aker
Angel in the cloud (Rev. 10) = Sokaris
Keeper of the scroll (Rev. 5) = Sheshet
Great harlot (Rev. 17) = Iai/Sheshes


Three examples of parallel characters

in Egyptian sources and the Book of Revelation

The following is a sample of four parallel characters showing their main physical similarities. Other parallels involve similar roles in the two sources.

1. "God on the throne" parallels Egypt's Osiris:

Practically all the physical characteristics of Revelation's God on the throne have parallels (in brackets) with those of Osiris; most of them are noted in this Figure. Egyptian pictures are typically accompanied by text so that the final identification of each character in each character can only be appreciated when both picture and the text are considered together. Egyptologists call this "subordination of text to image." Thus, some parallels are based on textual sources rather than the physical form of individual elements shown in this particular diagram (for example: Rev. 1:14, 4:6-9, 1:5, 3:5, 20:12-13) . Each parallel shown here, and more besides, are discussed in detail in the book. (Also, note that Revelation at times uses the word God to refer to either Egypt's Re or Osiris, depending on context).


2. Revelation's "Lamb of God" parallels the juvenile form of the sun-god, Re:


Juvenile, ram-headed form
of the sun-god Re.

The parallels in this figure are are based on its  three symbolic elements.

-- The circle hieroglyph is the symbol for the sun-god, Re.

-- The standing figure with the ram's head is a second manifestation of the sun-god. This is the sun-god's form as a ram.

-- T
he scarab beetle hieroglyph means that the ram (the sun-god) in the circle is immature, i.e., is "becoming" the mature form of the sun-god

-- The combination of these three symbols indicates this drawing represents the juvenile form of the ram-headed form sun-god, Re. In other words, this represents the "lamb of Re" which often corresponds to Revelation’s
"lamb of God", or simply "the Lamb".

3. Revelation's "Satan/devil" corresponds to Egypt's Apophis



Apophis, the ancient serpent

-- Both Revelations Devil (Rev. 20:2) and Egypt’s Apophis are referred to as an "ancient serpent" .

-- Egypt’s Apophis is the archenemy of the two gods, Re and Osiris while the Devil is the archenemy of God
who, in different contexts in Revelation, can be referring to either Re or Osiris) .

-- Scenes, events and series of events involving God and the Devil have close parallels to those involving the sun-god and Apophis in Egyptian religious texts.



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