Similarities between the sequence of elements in
Rev. 3:7-12 and Chapter 115 of the Book of the dead


 

 
The table opposite illustrates the similarity between sequence of similarities between the two sources:

Letters A to M
are assigned to segments of texts present in the Egyptian source.

Numbers 7 to 12
correspond to the verse numbers in Revelation which contain similar elements to those in the Egyptian source (lower case letters indicate sequence numbers within each verse).

Note
the overall agreement in the sequence of elements in the two sources; also note that there are some minor variations between the sequence of Revelation's parallels and that of their parallels in the Egyptian source.
---o---
     The next table presents details of parallel elements included in this table while the last table shows the context of each of the parallel elements within their respective documents.
 
Significant Egyptian parallels have been identified in all seven letters. One letter is particularly quite remarkable because of similarities in the sequence of its various elements to a chapter found in the Book of the Dead, Chapter 115, which is called the Chapter of ascending to the sky, opening up the tomb, and knowing the Souls of Heliopolis. Revelation's corresponding text is addressed to the church in Philadelphia and recorded in Rev. 3:7-12
The following table identifies each of the parallel elements in the two sources. These are arranged in the order in which they appear in the Book of the Dead. (The full texts of both sources are presented at the end of the table.)
 
Book of the Dead
Chapter 115

 
Letter to Philadelphia
Rev. 3:7-12

A. A deity is introduced
I have become Khepri,

Note: Khepri was a form of the sun god, Re.
 

A.  A deity is introduced
 Vs. 7a: “The words of the holy one, the true one"

 

B. Something is opened
I have opened
up the circle of darkness.

 
B.  A  door is opened
Vs.7b: who opens and no one shall shut, who shuts and no one opens.
Vs. 8b: I have set before you an open door, which no one is able to shut;

 

C. People with false credentials
I know the Souls of Heliopolis, into which the High-priest of Heliopolis [the Iunmutef priest] was not initiated through revelation;

 
C. People with false credentials
Vs. 9b who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie

 

D Statement of knowledge about activities of a group.
the hostile acts by Him who would destroy the heirs of Heliopolis

 
D.  Statement of knowledge about activities of a group.
Vs. 8a: I know your works ...
Vs. 8c: I know that you have but little power, and yet you have kept my word and have not denied my name.

 

E. Authority and Power
I know why a braided lock is made for a man.
Note: The braided lock was worn by the sun-god's high priest, the Iunmutef priest, who was greatly revered by Egyptians. (It was also worn by boys before puberty).
 
E. Authority and Power
Vs. 9c: I will make them come and bow down before your feet
Note: A promise to grant authority.

 

F. Reference to Apophis
Re disrupted the serpent [Apophis], ‘Him who is in his burning’ , ...
Note: Apophis, represented here by a  burning serpent, is the Egyptian equivalent of Christianity’s Satan.
 
F. Reference to Satan
Vs. 9a: ... the synagogue of Satan
Note: Christianity’s Satan is ancient Egypt's equivalent of Apophis.

 

G. Reference to one who lies
... his mouth was injured, and that is how the reduction in the mouth came about.
Note: It is reasonable to assume that the statement, "his mouth was injured ..." , refers to a person who lies.
 
G. Reference to those who lie
Vs. 9b: ... who say they are Jews and are not, but lie.

 

H. Arrival of a Deity
.... Re’s passing came into being.

 
H. Arrival of a Deity
Vs. 11a: I am coming soon;
 

 

 
 
I. Action against an adversary
It so happened that He of the red cloth heard, and his arm was not stopped. ... It so happened that the mighty one was stripped in the temple, and that is how the stripped one of Heliopolis came into being.
Note: Lesser priests are distinguished from the "mighty one", ie., the high priest, which is the one to be be dismissed.
 
I.  Threat of action to be taken
Vs. 10: I will keep you from the hour of trial which is coming on the whole world, to try those who dwell upon the earth.
vs. 11b: hold fast to what your have, so that no one may seize your crown.
Note: Authority is to taken away from from a group of people 
 

 

 
J. A new line of  authority is established
It so happened that the heritage of the heir came into being, and great will be he who shall see it;
he will become High-priest of Heliopolis.
Note: A new line of  high priests is established. The Iunmutef priest (the "Pillar of his Mother priest") was Re's chief priest, his primary station  being in Heliopolis (such priests were also represented in other Egyptian temples).
 
J. Reward includes conqueror becoming a pillar in the temple
Vs.12a: He who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God;
Note: Authority is given to become the high priest of the temple (in Egypt, this priest was called the "Iunmetef priest" which means "Pillar of his Mother".
 
 

 

K. Reference to the city of god.
I know the souls of Heliopolis;
Note 1: Egypt's city of Iunu was called Heliopolis in Greek, a name  which meant "City of the Sun", i.e., the City of Re, named after the sun-god Re. The residents of this city in Lower Egypt were therefore considered special in the eyes of Re and to Egypt in general.
Note 2: Heliopolis (Iunu) was the earthly equivalent was the celestial dwelling place of the blessed dead. It's celestial equivalent had several names, including the "Yaru Fields" and rose into the daytime sky with Re, the sun-god every morning at dawn. It was thus a very special place in the heavens.
 
K. Reference to name of city of God
Vs.12b: I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem which comes down form my God out of heaven.
Note: The Iunmutef priest was "high priest of  Re in Heliopolis" (= Iunu). As the capital of Lower Egypt, it was a very special city --- just as it's residents must have been.
 
 

 

L. Reference to names
... they are Re, Shu, and Tefnut.
Note: Chapter 115  of the Book of the dead ends with the names of these three deities. As the sun-god, Re was the supreme deity. Shu was the personification of the air and Tefnut the goddess of moisture.
 
L.  Reference to a name
Vs.12c: and I will write on him ... my own new name.
Note: Looking at these words from an Egyptian point of view, it seems to refer to the name, "Re" being the latest name for the supreme god in Egypt. Earlier names for the supreme god, "Amun" the primeval creator god which was later replaced by "Amun-Re" who was identified with the sun-god, and still later, by the name, "Re".
 
 

 

Context of above parallels in the two sources

This table presents the parallels in their native contexts. Alphabetic characters in [...] brackets are the same as in the above table. Alternating parallels in the left side of the table are shown in alternating colors; these colors match those of the suggested parallels in the right side. See above table for explanation of the parallels indicated here.
 
 
Full text of Chapter 115 of the Book of the Dead
(Translation by R. Faulkner)
I have spent yesterday among the great ones, [A.] I have become Khepri, I have cleared the vision of the Sole Eye, [B] have opened up the circle of darkness. I am one of them, [C] know the Souls of Heliopolis, into which the High-priest of Heliopolis was not initiated through revelation; [D] [I know] the hostile acts by Him who would destroy the heirs of Heliopolis; [E] I know why a braided lock is made for a man.
    Re disrupted [F] the serpent, ‘Him who is in his burning’, and [G] his mouth was injured, and that is how the reduction in the mouth came about. He said to the serpent: ‘I will take my harpoon, which men will inherit’, and that is how the harpoon came into being. The serpent said: ‘The Two Sisters will come into being’, and that is how [H] Re’s passing came into being.
    It so happened that He of the red cloth heard, and [I] his arm was not stopped. He transformed himself into a woman with braided hair, and that is how the priest of Heliopolis with braided hair come into being. [J] It so happened that the mighty one was stripped in the temple, and that is how the stripped one of Heliopolis came into being. [K] It so happened that the heritage of the heir came into being, and great will be he who shall see it; he will become high-priest of Heliopolis.
    [L] I know the Souls of Heliopolis; [M] they are Re, Shu, and Tefnut.
 
Full text of the letter to the church in Philadelphia Rev. 2:7-13
(R. S. Version)

7. "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: [A] 'The words of the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, [B1] who opens [the door] and no one shall shut, who shuts and no one opens.
8. [D] I know your works. Behold,
[B2] I have set before you an open door, which no one is able to shut; I know that you have but little power, and yet you have kept my word and have not denied my name.
9. Behold, I will make [F] those of the synagogue of Satan [C] who say that they are Jews and are not, but lie -- behold, [E] I will make them come and bow down before your feet, and learn that I have loved you.
10. Because you have kept my word of patient endurance, [I] I will keep you from the hour of trial which is coming on the whole world, to try those who dwell upon the earth.
11. [H] I am coming soon; [I] hold fast what you have, so that no one may seize your crown.
12. [K] He who conquers, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God; never shall he go out of it, and [L] I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem which comes down from my God out of heaven, and [M] my own new name.
13. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.'

 
 
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