Perspectives

New test Feb 17A:


Chapter 31. Perspectives1400
 pg568 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  The almost overwhelming number of parallels between the Book of Revelation and ancient Egyptian writings, beliefs and traditions suggest that practically all of the book can be understood within the context of Egyptian sources. For example, Revelation’s opening scene and the letters to the seven churches closely resemble the opening scene of the Book of the Divine Cow wherein the sun-god calls together his high-ranking deities todiscusswhat should be done about mankind’s rebellious activities. Similarly, Revelation begins with a throne scene in which a central deity dictates a series of ultimatums to the inhabitants of seven localities, advising several of them to cease their rebellious ways or face severe punishment, even war. The structure of these ultimatums is similar to certain chapters in the Book of the Dead and the Book of Caverns while their details parallel a variety of commonly held Osirian beliefs, most of which are recorded in the Book of the Dead. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP With the opening of the scroll in Rev. 5, the reader is introduced to a group of scenes which follow the same general sequence as similar scenes near the middle of Egypt’s Amduat Series of scenes. Next, scenes which parallel events in Rev. 6-7 are found in the 6 through 11 Divisions of th th the Amduat and, as in Revelation, end with a scene in which a great multitude carrying palm branches stand before a deity’s throne. After several accounts of manifestations of the wrath of God in Rev. 8-9, which parallel events in several Egyptian sources, the scenes switch back in Rev. 10 to parallels in the 5th Division of the Amduat. Parallels then temporarily switch from the Amduat to scenes in two other Egyptian texts. Firstly, the Book of Aker parallels Rev. 11 and presents a story about two “witnesses” which culminates in a great earthquake and the death of 7,000 people. Next, in scenes in the Books of the Heavens which parallel those found in Rev. 12, we read of the birth of a god-child and conflict with a dragon. From there, Egyptian parallels to events in Rev. 13-14 switch back to the remaining parts of the Amduat where the sequence of parallel events reverse, flowing backwards from the 4th through 2nd Divisions and culminating in the destruction of evil doers on the earth in thewell-known metaphor of the reaping of the harvests of the fields of the earth described in Rev. 14. Meanwhile, parts of the Amduat Series are frequently augmented by brief scenes and passages from other Egyptian sources such as the Book of the Dead, the Victory Hymn of Thutmosis III and the Annals of Thutmosis III. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP  31. Perspectives 569 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX  The second series of scenes, the Book of Gates Series, covers most of the remaining chapters (Rev. 15-22) which contain scenes and sequences of scenes resembling those found primarily in the Book of Gates and the Books of the Heavens. In the 2 Division of the Book of Gates we find seven deities nd who dispense the fiery wrath of the sun-god while a nearby group of twelve singers stand by a lake of fire. Similarly, in Rev. 15, seven angels dispense the wrath of God while singers by a lake of fire sing the “Song of Moses” which itself parallels a section of the well-known Egyptian Victory Hymn of Thutmosis (Thut-moses) III. Next, the description of the drying up of the Euphrates River in Rev. 16 paints a picture similar to a dried-up riverbed scene in the 3rd Division of the Book of Gates. And the battle of Armageddon in the same chapter of Revelation contains significant similarities to events portrayed in both the 6th Division of the Amduat and the Annals of Thutmosis III. The story of the conflict between the harlot and the kings in Rev. 17 parallels events shown graphically in the 9th Division. Then, events associated with the wrath of God described in Rev. 18-19 parallel Egyptian descriptions of catastrophes caused by the eruption of a volcano in the Aegean Sea in c. 1628 BCE. And just as the capture and chaining of the ancient serpent is followed by a 1,000 year reign of the faithful in Rev. 20, Egypt’s ancient serpentine enemy of the sun-god is captured and bound with a chain in the 10th Division where reference is also made to a 1,000 year period. Furthermore, in both sources the serpent is described as once again being free and then recaptured and punished yet again. Rev. 20 then switches to resurrection and judgment scenes which have significant parallels in the Books of the Heavens. Finally, the arrival of a new heaven and earth in Rev. 21 leads us to the conclusion of the Book of Gates in its 11th and 12th Divisions where we find a dramatic picture depicting the re-creation of the cosmos and a new celestial city whose physical characteristics conform with Revelation’s Holy City in Rev. 21-22. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Significantly, evidence for these and many other parallels includes not only scenes and sequences of scenes but also the identities of individual characters. Exquisite details of the physical attributes of many of these characters and groups of characters in scenes and sequences of scenes conform so well with those in Egyptian texts and pictures as to render them unequivocal parallels. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Individual parallels and the sum total of all the various types of parallels found in this study represent strong evidence for an Egyptian link to the Book of Revelation; the crowning piece of evidence is the similarity between the overall organization of the Book of Revelation and that of parallel compositions and scenes painted on the walls and ceilings of the tomb of Ramesses VI.When confronted with this remarkable volume of parallels, from the minutiae of possible Egyptian homonyms to the overall organization of scenes and chapters, it is practically impossible to conclude anything other than that the Book of Revelation is of Egyptian origin. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP In spite of this conclusion, no part of the Book of Revelation is an obvious translation of any of the Egyptian texts examined. Instead, the book seems to merely allude to Egyptian sources. This is not necessarily an abnormal weakness when considering ancient manuscripts; biblical scholars have come to the same conclusion about references in Revelation to events described in the Old Testament. For example, Sweet (1993) tells us that, END OF TEST STRIP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

570 Egyptian Origin of the Book of Revelation XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


 
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