Introduction:

an Egyptological perspective

This treatise compares several well-known religious texts from ancient Egypt with scenes described in Christianity’s Book of Revelation. Egyptian texts include the Amduat; the Book of Gates; Books of the Heavens; Book of Caverns; Book of the Dead; Book of the Divine Cow and several others. Parallels identified in the Book of Revelation include at least ten of the Egyptian gods plus and a selection of other characters. They include Osiris, Re, Apophis Sokaris, their counterparts being: Revelation’s God on the throne, the Lamb, Satan and the “angel” mentioned in the 10th chapter of Revelation. Descriptions, situations and activities of in individual scenes (e.g., judgment scene) are used to help in identifications. Egyptian parallels to specific events are readily identified for almost all the main passages in the Book of Revelation, including the catastrophic events which affected Egypt during the 2nd Intermediate Period (= cataclysmic  events described in Revelation) as well as Egypt’s struggles with the Hyksos. Similar ceremonies include the eating of a scroll to gain knowledge as described in detail in Rev. 10. Remarkably, many similar sequences of parallels are identified in the various Egyptian sources and the Book of Revelation. For example, the sequence of many scenes from 2nd to 12th Divisions of the Book of Gates is similar to that found in Revelation’s chapters 15-21. The most remarkable similar sequence, however, is that found between the 4th Division of the Amduat (which deals with the sun-god’s perils along the torturous, zig-zag route through the Land of Sokar) and the scenes described in Rev. 13 (which deal with its 1st and 2nd beasts, the image of the 1st beast, and the false prophet).
    Perhaps the most remarkable finding is that the overall organization of the Book of Revelation conforms with the layout of pictures and texts on the walls and ceilings of the tomb of Ramesses VI. This finding strongly supports the conclusion that Egypt’s most important religious texts played a pivotal role in the composition of the Book of Revelation. It seems that Revelation’s references to certain Biblical place-names, deities and events represent corruptions of the book’s original text (which certain findings suggest were probably written in Greek) and were later adapted to and incorporated into Christianity’s corpus of literature.

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