HIGHLIGHTS
(of particular interest to Egyptologists)

      The following findings represent a sample of the  numerous parallels between characters, scenes and events described in Egyptian sources and similar elements  in the Book of Revelation:

Book of the Dead: The well-known scene showing Osiris seated on his throne in the Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead bears a remarkable resemblance to the throne scene described Rev. 1 and elsewhere. These include his long, ankle-length robe, his radiance, metallic flesh, the power of his spoken word, and even the water beneath his throne.

The four son’s of Horus: Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, typically shown before the throne of Osiris have basically the same appearance and function as the four creatures before Revelation’s throne of God.

Amduat, 4th Div.: This part of the Amduat is quite remarkable in that it not only contains parallels to the arrival in Rev. 13 of two beasts, the “first” and the “second beasts.” The characteristics of the first beast identify it as the Hyksos version of the god Seth during Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period while the second is one of the Hyksos kings. Similarly, the “shape created by Horus,” conforms with Revelation’s image of the 1st beast (Seth) created by the Hyksos. Also, the apparent marking of subjugated people (Seth’s followers), possibly with the hieroglyphic symbol  or an abbreviated version of it, was at times pronounced the same as Seth. This symbol may be interpreted as meaning “666” (the now infamous “mark of the beast”) if one assumes an interpretational error or an attempt at a pun by the author of the original version of Revelation; this seems likely if the author was not Egyptian but rather a native of the Levant. Also note that events involving the various gods of the 4th Division follow the same sequence as their parallels in Rev. 13.

Amduat, 5th Div.: Many elements in this division of the Amduat are consistent with the scene of the presentation and consumption of a “little scroll” in Rev. 10. For example, the Amduat shows the god Sokaris holding one of two door panels, the Egyptian word for which is ārt. Since he same word is used for “scroll” and Sokaris holds the smaller of the two panels, we may say that a visual pun is likely applicable here in which an implied “little scroll” is in one of Sokaris’ stylized hands. Also, a nearby serpent called “The Taster” implies that the stylized scroll on which it sits (8) should be eaten as in Rev. 10. Furthermore, the double-headed lion-god Aker which forms a part of the knot at the top of a stylized scroll suggests the name of the scroll is the Book of Aker, a book which contain parallels to  practically the entire next chapter of Revelation, Rev. 11. (See paragraph on Book of Aker below)

Amduat & Book of Gates: The juvenile form of the ram-headed, sun-god Re can be legitimately described as the “Lamb of Re,” a phrase corresponding to Revelation’s “Lamb of God,” a character which has the same function in many parts of the Book of Revelation as Re in the Amduat and the Book of Gates.

Amduat & Book of Gates:
The thirty-four groups of 12 deities in the Amduat and 10 in the Book of Gates, when considered as a single group, have the same physical characteristics as recorded for the 12 tribes of Israel in Rev. 12 and elsewhere. One particular grouping of gods contains a statistically significant (p = .0001) number of names with Egyptian meanings similar to the meanings of the Hebrew names of the tribes of Israel.

Book of Gates, 2nd Div.:
The scene in this upper register of the Book of Gates shows twelve deities standing by a lake of fire. This conforms in several important ways with the scene in Rev. 15 where singers stand by a lake of fire singing “the song of Moses.” Also, there are a number of remarkable similarities between a segment of the text in the Victory Hymn of Thutmosis III and the wording of the song of Moses sung by the group in Revelation.

Book of Gates, 3rd Div.:
This part of the Book of Gates illustrates and describes a dried-up river bed and a giant serpent from which emerges enemies of the sun-god. This scene is consistent with the one in Rev. 16 describing the drying up of a river and a dragon from which emerge evil entities to gather for battle against the forces of “God the Almighty” at Armageddon. Furthermore, significant parts of Thutmosis III’s famous battle of Megiddo (= Revelation’s Armageddon) described in the Annals of Thutmosis III conform with Rev. 16's battle of Armageddon, including the many nations involved and the idea of God’s army “coming like a thief” upon the enemy.

Book of Gates, 10th & 11th Div.:
  Practically all aspects of the capture of Apophis in this part of Book of Gates conform with the first part of Rev. 20. Parallels include the goddess Selkit (Revelation’s “angel”) who holds a “great chain” used to bind the ancient serpent Apophis as well as the incarceration of Apophis deep in the earth. Also, in both sources the serpent apparently escapes while both the 11th Division of the Book of Gates and Revelation describe its recapture and subsequent destruction.

Book of the Heavens:
Events in both the Book of Night and the Book of Day follow the same sequence as the second last verse of Rev. 11 and most of Revelation’s 12th chapter.
    Book of Night: Egypt’s judgment scene spans almost the entire length of the Book of Night and has all the elements of a similar scene described in the second part of Rev. 20, including the great white throne, resurrection of both the believers (with special attention to those who had drowned) and the sun-god’s enemies (Seth and his followers), separation of Revelation’s “the great and the small,” the opening of the books” (again, doors act as visual puns for books/scrolls) and the judgment of the believers (with special treatment for those who had drowned).
    Book of Day: The First Hour of the Book of Day contains an illustration of Egypt’s Yaru Fields, the celestial dwelling place of those who triumph in the final judgment. The Yaru Fields conform with important aspects of the Holy City described in Rev. 22; the shape, size and other characteristics of Egypt’s celestial city are practically identical with those of Revelation’s City of God.

Book of Aker:
A significant portion of the scenes depicted in the Book of Aker have counterparts in Rev. 11 which tells a story of two “witnesses” (“guardians” in the Egyptian text). Parallels include the description of the temple of God (of Osiris), two mourners (Isis and Nephthys), two lampstands (uraeus serpents), the death of the two witnesses and their resurrection and ascension into the sky, a great earthquake and the death of 7,000. Furthermore, the set of scenes which form the lower register of Part A of the Book of Aker, and which is believed to summarize the entire book, follow the same sequence as parallel scenes in Rev. 11.

Apocalyptic Events:
Much of the imagery in three chapters in the Book of the Dead, a portion of the Book of Aker, the Prophesy of Neferrohu and the Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage reveal a variety of different apocalyptic events similar to those described in many parts of the Book of Revelation. A systematic de-mythologization of all seemingly unrelated apocalyptic texts in Revelation clearly shows they conform with the range of events normally associated with a major catastrophic eruption of a island volcano; they also conform with many apparently unlinked, similar events mentioned in the Egyptian sources. Moreover, they conform with the ancient Greek writings of Plato and modern vulcanologists who have found evidence of a catastrophic eruption of the volcanic island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea during Egypt’s 2nd Intermediate Period — an eruption which had dramatic impacts on Egypt’s delta region of the Nile.

Parallel Series of Events: Except for the apocalyptic events and other parallels in the Book of the Dead, Book of Aker, Book of Caverns, Books of the Heavens, and a few minor Egyptian sources, all the above mentioned parallels — and numerous others besides — fall into two major series: the Amduat Series and the Book of Gates Series of events.

Tomb of Ramesses VI:
  The Schutzbild scene in the Tomb of Ramesses VI shows four central serpents holding back four “enemies.” It contains all the elements of the scene in Rev. 7 which describes the holding back of the four “winds.” Since the Egyptian word for “wind,” athu, is a close homonym for the word for “enemy,” atu, it is suggested that a visual pun on the word atu is possible so that the scene may also be interpreted to mean four “winds,” just as we find in Revelation. Obvious parallels for almost all other elements in this scene support this conclusion.

Tomb of Ramesses IV:
Remarkably, and despite their origins in disparate Egyptian texts, practically all the observed parallels found in Revelation in this study follow the same sequences and series of sequences — including minor variations in a few parallel sequences  — as similar illustrations and texts painted on the walls and ceilings of the Tomb of Ramesses VI. This suggests that the overall structure of the Book of Revelation is likely based on the content and arrangement of the various texts and drawings on the walls and ceilings of the tomb of Ramesses VI; it also suggests the original version of the Book of Revelation was actually composed within the tomb itself. We may assume that the Book of Revelation’s apparent Christian nature resulted from later redactions by Christian scribes in the early days of Christianity.

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