ABSTRACT

Of all books in the Christian Bible, the Book of Revelation has been, and remains to be, the most enigmatic, especially with respect to meanings embodied in its complex symbolism. This study explores the degree of similarities between it and the religious texts of Egypt.

Significant parallels found between the two sources include attributes of their main events, scenes such as the judgment scene, sequences of scenes, characters and word play in Egyptian religious sources and the Book of Revelation.

Similar scenes in the two sources include segments from the Book of Aker and Revelation 11; portions of the Books of the Heavens and Rev. 12; and the well known Victory Hymn of Thutmosis III. Parallels to many of the apocalyptic images in Revelation are identified in several Egyptian religious documents. Quite a few examples of the potential use of word play in Revelation are revealed in similar Egyptian passages where phrases and words based on Egyptian homonyms or near homonyms  are used (a common practice in ancient Egyptian religious writings).

Many similar events and sequences of events are identified. For example, the sequence of parallel events found in in the 5th through 14th chapters of Revelation follows a similar sequence in the Egyptian book of the Amduat. And a similar sequence found in the 15th to 21st chapters of Revelation resembles one found in the Book of Gates. Also, the Book of Revelation has an organizational structure compatible with that of the texts and pictures found on the walls and ceilings of the tomb of Ramesses VI.

Similar characters in both the Book of Revelation and Egyptian sources where they play similar rolls in the various parallel events and sequences of events. These include Revelation's Lamb, which is similar to the juvenile form of the sun-god, Re; Revelation's God on the throne is similar to Osiris; and Christ is similar to Egypt's Horus (and to a certain extent, to Thoth). Even the enigmatic number "666," the Revelation's so-called "beast" and the "mark of the beast" can be readily identified as Seth in the Egyptian texts.

The high concentration of similarities between characters, scenes and series of scenes in the two sources suggest a distinct possibility of a link between ancient Egyptian literature and the the Book of Revelation.

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